C2 (odontoid) fractures
Through tip of dens. Unstable (may have associated atlanto-occipital dislocation or disruption of transverse ligament). Treat with collar or halo vest.
Through base of dens. Unstable, treat with halo vest or surgical fixation. Preference for surgery when:
Note: children <7 years almost always heal with immobilization alone.
Through body of C2. Can be unstable, treat with halo vest.